Other paintings in this series available on request.

Beautiful Equations and Inequalities, flashe and acrylic on canvas, 16x20, 2014

Symbols for learning from many cultures and a selection of equations and inequalities, including the Mandelbrot Set, Cantor's Theorem, the definition of e, the Taylor Seriesmathematical constants (epi, and the square root of -1), etc.  ​Many of these equations and inequalities interrelate when we use them in everyday life.


The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus​, acrylic on canvas, 11x14, 2015, includes tiny portraits of Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz and embeds their formula.  One can also see the theorem and its symbol, the nautilus shell, in the transparent background.  I used red and green around Newton's portraits because he was born on Christmas day in 1642.  In illuminated manuscripts of the 17th century, halos were used to signify an important saint.  Here, the halo is made of laurel leaves to indicate important scientists and scientific achievement.  The portraits are made to look like ghosts as a main critique/description at the time was that the theorem represented "the ghost of departed quantities."​​

Seventeen Equations That Changed the World​, flashe and acrylic on canvas, 30"x40", 2015, includes symbols from different cultures for wisdom, learning and knowledge.  The math and science equations embedded at the roots of the trees include, among others, Newton's law of gravitation, Euler's formula for polyhedra, the Navier-Stokes equation, and Einstein's theory of relativity.  Mathematician Ian Stewart included these particular 17 equations in his book In Pursuit of the Unknown.  The trees represent the arbor philosophica -- to plant the philosopher's tree is to stimulate the creative imagination. 

The Square Root of Minus One, acrylic on canvas, 11x14, 2016, The square root of minus one led to the creation of complex numbers and is the basis of quantum mechanics.   It is used in complex mathematic theory and electrical engineering.  Since electrical lighting and digital cameras could not have been invented without using complex numbers, I embedded a light bulb and digital camera.  Because the equation was originally posited in the 16th century by Girolamo Cardano, a rogue, scholar and gambler, I included a jester’s hat and a heart, club, spade, and diamond.  (He also invented the combination lock and got into trouble for throwing Jesus’s horoscope.)   You can also see the magnetic field of a bar magnet derived using complex analysis in the upper left quadrant and the complex plane as envisioned by Wessel, Argand and Gauss in the upper right. 




The Schrodinger Equation​, acrylic on canvas, 16x20, 2015, shows the wave-like behavior of atoms (the dual nature of matter).  Painting also shows two quantum states (one in green and the other in its opposite color red).  As a humorous reference to Schrodinger's famous cat analogy, you can also see the cat along with Schrodinger's round eyeglasses.  Planck's constant is also embedded in the ornament in the lower right corner, which also shows that total energy for a given frequency is finite.  The particles in the waves contain numerous wisdom, learning symbols (including an Egyptian hieroglyph, east African adinkra symbols, nordic runes, etc.​​​​

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